Knowledge Base

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What is the highest card printer speed?

Evolis primacy.

What is the code used to identify the Wiegand 26 bit format?

H10301

What is a credential?

If I was to say that it is an access card, that would be correct. There are other things though that can be a credential. There are Key Fobs, Plastic insert keys, keys with logic chips built in, wireless transmitters, …and the list can go on. A credential is anything that can store a unique identifier and pass it to a collecting device when it is needed. In the case of bio-meterics your mind can store a number, your hand has a certain geometry, or what about your finger print. All of these things can and are being used as a credential. In the next few minutes we are going to explore some of the basics about these items. Some of the more common items that we will look at are:
  • Cards – Mag Stripe, Bar Code, Barrium Ferrite, Wiegand, Keypads, and Proximity
  • Smart Cards
  • Biometric
While we are looking at the different credentials we will also show you examples of the different readers that are associated with them. If the data is correct then the processor tells the lock relay to energize and unlock the door If the data is incorrect then the processor logs the attempt and does not release the door
You are going to be the processor for this example.  Push the button that corresponds to your decision.

When is a card read valid?

A card is considered valid if several questions are answered correctly.
  • Is the card number recognized by the panel or the access system?
  • Is the card supposed to be used at this reader?
  • If the card is supposed to be used at this reader, then is it okay to use it at this time?
  • All of this data is stored in the system. This data is what comprises the cards “Access Level”.
In the case of the N-1000 series panels, the data is stored at the panel as well as in the system. This way the panel can operate in either a standalone mode or in conjunction with other panels. If the data is correct then the processor tells the lock relay to energize and unlock the door. If the data is incorrect then the processor logs the attempt and does not release the door. You are going to be the processor for this example. Push the button that corresponds to your decision.

Panel Interface

No discussion of card data formats would be complete without a brief look at the communication interface. An “interface” defines how two devices communicate with one another. Various HID readers can communication using a variety of well established, industry standard interfaces. The three most common are:

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Anim pariatur cliche reprehenderit, enim eiusmod high life accusamus terry richardson ad squid. 3 wolf moon officia aute, non cupidatat skateboard dolor brunch. Food truck quinoa nesciunt laborum eiusmod. Brunch 3 wolf moon tempor, sunt aliqua put a bird on it squid single-origin coffee nulla assumenda shoreditch et. Nihil anim keffiyeh helvetica, craft beer labore wes anderson cred nesciunt sapiente ea proident. Ad vegan excepteur butcher vice lomo. Leggings occaecat craft beer farm-to-table, raw denim aesthetic synth nesciunt you probably haven’t heard of them accusamus labore sustainable VHS.

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Anim pariatur cliche reprehenderit, enim eiusmod high life accusamus terry richardson ad squid. 3 wolf moon officia aute, non cupidatat skateboard dolor brunch. Food truck quinoa nesciunt laborum eiusmod. Brunch 3 wolf moon tempor, sunt aliqua put a bird on it squid single-origin coffee nulla assumenda shoreditch et. Nihil anim keffiyeh helvetica, craft beer labore wes anderson cred nesciunt sapiente ea proident. Ad vegan excepteur butcher vice lomo. Leggings occaecat craft beer farm-to-table, raw denim aesthetic synth nesciunt you probably haven’t heard of them accusamus labore sustainable VHS.

Panel Interface

No discussion of card data formats would be complete without a brief look at the communication interface. An “interface” defines how two devices communicate with one another. Various HID readers can communication using a variety of well established, industry standard interfaces. The three most common are:
  • Wiegand
  • Clock and Data (Magnetic Stripe)
  • Serial (RS232, RS422, RS485)

Panels and Security

The panel is the only component that interprets the data on the card. This enhances the security of the whole process. If a malicious person accesses a credential, they will not know what the format is. The data is on the credential, but the key to deciphering the data resides only on the control panel. Without the key, the data is just a series of 0′s and 1′s.

The Role of the Panel

Access control panels are the key to putting the card data format to work. It is the panel that expects the data in a certain pattern and it is the panel that will reject any format that does not fit its expectations.   Most every panel accepts the standard 26 bit format. The simple panels may use only one or two formats while the more advanced panels accept virtually any format. Some are even configurable to allow for custom formats to be created. Remember, the bits can be arranged according to any pattern that the programmers can think up!

Corporate 1000

Most card formats are created by manufacturers of the controllers or the programmers that administer them. However, HID also has a unique program called the Corporate 1000. Corporate 1000 customers are given a completely unique 35 bit format. No other customer will receive the same format and only authorized integrators and distributors will be able to order the credentials. The customer’s access control panel must be able to decode the Corporate 1000 format. Note that the data in each component does not have to be in a row. For example, an OEM format may say that the card number is made up of every other bit through the first 20 bits. This means unlimited potential for unique formats. As long as the controller knows the pattern, it can be formulated in any manner necessary.

Introduction to Format

A card format is a way of organizing the bits into patterns that are recognizable by the reader. In order to start understanding the way these patterns work, let’s start looking at the patterns we see in numbers every day.HID produces and manages hundreds of card data formats. Each format is merely a collection of a number of bits. It is the controller in the access control system that requires the bits to be in a certain pattern (or format). From HID’s perspective, the format is only important for programming purposes. Neither the card nor the reader have any role in deciphering the format. A parity bit is used to check for the integrity of the data that is transmitted. Communication between a credential and reader is very reliable. However, the possibility does exist that some interference or environmental condition may corrupt the data. In this case, one of the bits may be misinterpreted. Parity bits also allow the controller to verify the data sent by the reader. If communication between a card and reader is interrupted or otherwise corrupted, the likelihood is that only one of the bits in the data stream will be transposed. In order to detect this change, programmers use a parity bit. A parity bit is a single bit at the beginning or end of a string of other bits. In the Wiegand format, there are 26 total bits. If you divide the bits in half, there are 13 on both the front and back end of the card data. The parity bits in the Wiegand format are the first and the last bits. Let’s look at the first half. Without the parity bit, there are 12 bits of data in the first half of the format. If we count all of the 1′s, we will get the sum total of this group. If the number is odd, the parity bit is set to “1″ and if it is even, the parity bit is set to “0″. 1101101001101 0011001101010 The card format defines the role of the parity bit. For example, in the Wiegand format, the leading parity bit is used to make the sum of the first 13 bits add up to an even number. Count the red bits noted below. 1101101001101 0011001101010 The total of the red bits is seven. In order to make the first half of the format even, the parity bit is set to a “1″. If any of the bits in the first half were to be switched to a zero or a one, the first half would read as an odd number and be rejected as corrupted data. As previously stated, HID currently supports hundreds of different card formats. Remember, a format pattern for the bits in a given data stream. The only limit on the pattern is the controller. The controller is the one that will separate the bits into the different components. Just as you can instantly pull the area code out of a phone number, the controller can pull the facility code out of the data stream as long as it knows the pattern being used! Let’s create our own card format to further illustrate this point. Click the EXERCISE button to begin. Remember that a format can be in any pattern, so long as the controller knows what that pattern is. Look at the format below. This format shows that the different components do not have to be sequential in the string. The access controller will be able to assemble the card number from the format below as long as it knows that the first two bits should be combined with the first three bits after the parity bit and the last 11 bits before the trailing parity bit. Card Format: NNPNNNFFFFFFFFNNNNNNNNNNNP Total bit size: 26

The Value of the Bit

A card format is made up of bits. As with all computer applications, a bit is merely a zero or a one. It’s either on or off. A string of zeros and ones creates a piece of data.So, what’s programmed on a card? The graphic below answers that question. The card merely carries a series of bits, or in other words, a series of 0′s and 1′s. 01101100010100110100110101

Nothing Like it ANYWHERE ———-RWKLB575

bioCLASS biometric unit offers programmable function buttons and a graphical quality LCD readout and a fingerprint reader for unique interactive control. bioCLASS communicates via Wiegand, RS-232, RS485 and USB connections. bioCLASS enrollment unit connects directly to PC for fingerprint capture, encryption and writing into card memory.

Different Memory Configurations

All iCLASScredentials are available in several different memory configurations:
  • 0 = 2k bits (256 Bytes) with 2 application areas
  • 1 = 16k bits (2k Bytes) with 2 application areas
  • 2 = 16k bits (2k Bytes) with 16 application areas
  • 3 = 32k bits (4k Bytes) Application Areas 16/2 + 16/1
  • 4 = 32k bits (4k Bytes) Application Areas 16/16 + 16/1
  Customers looking only for Access Control in the near future can save money by using the 2k bit cards. Customers anticipating use of Biometric templates, vending, logical access or other smart card application should get the 16k bit, 16 Application card. This will prepare them for any current or future requirements. The 125 kHz Prox and the iCLASSare both excellent product lines that continue the proud tradition of HID reliability and performance. However, the iCLASSline provides a new level of security, flexibility and power that is unique. With iCLASS, the possibilities are expanded to include all of the functionality of access control along with a host of other smart card applications. And iCLASSprovides all of this extra benefit at no additional cost over the Prox line.

RP Family

All of the features of iCLASStechnology are mated

with the features of 125 kHz Prox.

ProxCardII (clamshell) ———-   iCLASS 2k Clamshell

ProxCard II is equivalent to the iCLASS2k Clamshell.

OtheriCLASS cards are available in a more rugged PVC/PET

sandwich construction on special order.

ISOProxII, Smart ISOProxII

DuoProxII, Smart DuoProxII ——————- Any iCLASSCard

iCLASScards are available in versions with iCLASSonly andiCLASScombined with 125kHz Prox.

Both types can be made to accept a contact smart card module inserted on either the front or back.

All versions may be made with a Magnetic Stripe (Rear Packaging option 1)

ProxCard Plus ———-   iCLASSWiegand

Gives the ultimate upgrade combination for existing systems using Wiegand swipe technology.

May be made with a Magnetic Stripe (Rear Packaging option 1). Check for reader compatibility with this slightly thicker card.

ProxKeyII Keyfob ———-   iCLASSKey (Keyfob)

Keyfobs give the ultimate of convenience for perimeter access applications.

Cards are usually better where interior access is extensive. Nobody wants to carry their key ring around all day.

MicroProx Tag ———-   iCLASSTag

Self-adhesive HID Tags can be attached to plain PVC ID cards or most other technology Access Cards.

The iCLASSTag is the perfect bridge device for customers with existing ID cards who are converting from an outdated technology toiCLASS.   One major US airport is using them to convert from Barium Ferrite without re-badging all existing cardholders.

Nothing Like it ANYWHERE ———-RWKL550

bioCLASSTerminal offers programmable function buttons and a graphical quality LCD readout for unique interactive control.

Contrasting the 125 kHz Prox vs. 13.56 MHz

ProxPoint ———-R10

R10 costs the same as ProxPoint.

R10 is suitable for mullion (metal door frame) mounting

MiniProx ———-R10/R40

R10 can mount on metal like MiniProx– costs less.

R40 has same read-range as MiniProx– costs about the same.

R40 mounts on single-gang backbox.

Thinline/ProxPro ———-R40

R40 mounts on a single-gang backbox.

R40 has slightly less read-range than ProxPro.

Pricing is almost identical.

ProxPro with Keypad ———-RK40 with Keypad

Identical product functionality.

RK40 also offers PIN on card with local verification.

Works with controllers that can not receive HID keypad data.

MaxiProx ———- R90

The R90 is the new long range reader in theiCLASS line. Keyfobs and Tags will have less read range due to their smaller antenna configuration.

Parking Hold

There is a blue wire coming from the rear of the controller that is usually used in parking lot applications. When a credential is presented to the reader, the reader must first be sure that a car is present as well.

A magnetic loop in the pavement will open the circuit through the blue wire and allow the credential to be read. Otherwise, the wire is grounded and credentials are not accepted.

This is used to prevent someone without a car from trying to gain access to a secured lot without a vehicle.

Custom Beeper and LED

When the default beeper and LED are used, only the red, black, white and green wires are utilized for power and sending the Wiegand signal to the controller.   Some controllers have the ability to access the beeper and LED and use them for other purposes such as showing an access granted or door held open state. The orange, brown and yellow wires on the back of the reader are used for this purpose. Note that the controller must have relays or solid state outputs to directly control the reader response .

Default Beeper and LED

Most applications allow the reader to control its own beeper and LED. These options are listed in the How To Order Guide. For example, the default state (listed as 00) is for the LED to be red. When a credential is presented, the LED flashes green and a 1/4 second beep is sounded.   This response only indicates that a credential has been successfully presented to the reader. It is NOT an indication of access granted or denied.

Reader Power

There are several other wires that come from the back of the reader. The red and black wires are for the reader power. The red wire is the voltage and the black wire is the ground for the power and the circuits described on the following pages. This makes it a common ground for all reader operations.   All readers operate on 12 volt DC. Some models will also work on 5 volt DC, however the range of the reader will be reduced. There are also readers that will work on 24 volt DC. Check the specifications of the reader for details on the power requirements.

Reader Translation

Once the data is received from the card, the reader prepares the data for the controller. The reader does not do any interpreting of the data. It only translates the data into Wiegand protocol and sends it onto the controller. It is the controller that interprets the data and decides to grant or deny access.   The green and white wires coming send the data to the controller. The green wire is responsible for sending the 0′s and the white wire sends the 1′s. The two signals are combined in the controller to form the Wiegand string.

Sending Data

It’s time to bring the last two concepts together to show how data is transmitted. The reader sends a constant signal out for credentials to use. When a credential comes within range, it is powered by the signal and sends the data to the reader. All credentials use the exact same technology to communicate with the reader despite their difference in appearance.

Powering the Credential

Credentials are not independently powered. They use the radio frequency sent by the reader to energize the internal components. This energy is then used to send the data back to the reader.   The reading range is determined by the size of the credential and the reader. Larger readers and credentials have a longer reading range than their smaller counterparts.

RF Energy

The communication between a credential and a reader begins with a low level radio frequency that is constantly being sent by the reader. This frequency is a symmetrical signal sent from the front and the back of the device.   The radio frequency is a constant call out for credentials that are within range. The signal is sent at 125 kilohertz (kHz) with a pulse that repeats ten times each second.
.

125 kHz Prox Technology Basics

The 125 kHz reader is the gateway to physical access. It’s the reader that provides the energy for the credential, receives the binary data the credential transmits, translates the data and sends it to the controller.

Biometrics

Biometrics refers to the use of a human physical characteristics a credential to validate an access request. Biometrics provides an added layer of security to the typical access methods. Biometric solutions compare a stored template of a human characteristic to an actual sample that is taken at the reader when access is needed. The templates are called up when the person enters a PIN code, or uses a Bar Code, MagStripe, Prox Card or Smart card at the biometric reader. The card number is the reference for the template. Few readers use the biometric only as the credential, so biometrics is primarily a validation technique for the actual credential.

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bioCLASS biometric unit offers programmable function buttons and a graphical quality LCD readout and a fingerprint reader for unique interactive control. bioCLASS communicates via Wiegand, RS-232, RS485 and USB connections. bioCLASS enrollment unit connects directly to PC for fingerprint capture, encryption and writing into card memory.

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bioCLASS biometric unit offers programmable function buttons and a graphical quality LCD readout and a fingerprint reader for unique interactive control. bioCLASS communicates via Wiegand, RS-232, RS485 and USB connections. bioCLASS enrollment unit connects directly to PC for fingerprint capture, encryption and writing into card memory.

test

bioCLASS biometric unit offers programmable function buttons and a graphical quality LCD readout and a fingerprint reader for unique interactive control. bioCLASS communicates via Wiegand, RS-232, RS485 and USB connections. bioCLASS enrollment unit connects directly to PC for fingerprint capture, encryption and writing into card memory.

test

bioCLASS biometric unit offers programmable function buttons and a graphical quality LCD readout and a fingerprint reader for unique interactive control. bioCLASS communicates via Wiegand, RS-232, RS485 and USB connections. bioCLASS enrollment unit connects directly to PC for fingerprint capture, encryption and writing into card memory.